Bulk Dynamic Spray Freeze-Drying Part 1: Modeling of Droplet Cooling and Phase Change
Israel B. Sebastião, Bakul Bhatnagar, Serguei Tchessalov, Satoshi Ohtake, Matthias Plitzko, Bernhard Luy, Alina Alexeenko
In spray freeze-drying (SFD), the solution is typically dispersed into a gaseous cold environment producing frozen microparticles that are subsequently dried via sublimation. This technology can potentially manufacture bulk lyophilized drugs at higher rates compared with conventional freeze-drying in trays and vials because small frozen particles provide larger surface area available for sublimation. Although drying in SFD still has to meet the material collapse temperature requirements, the final characteristics of the respective products are mainly controlled by the spray-freezing dynamics. In this context, the main goal of this work is to present a single droplet spray-freezing model and validate it with previously published simulations and experimental data. For the investigated conditions, the droplet temperature evolutions predicted by the model agree with experiments within an error of ±10%. The proposed engineering-level modeling framework is intended to assist future development of efficient SFD processes and support scale up from laboratory to commercial scale equipment.
spray freeze-drying, sucrose, quality by design (QBD), lyophilization, freeze-drying, mathematical model(s)