Jan Kožák, Claire Chrétien, Yann Pellequer, Alf Lamprecht
Spray-freeze-drying (SFD) processes are usually using aqueous solvent systems, which however, exclude the use of SFD for poorly water-soluble drugs/excipients. Here, we evaluated dimethyl sulfoxide for its suitability in formulating SFD particles (lyospheres®). Rivaroxaban was spray-freeze-dried from DMSO solutions containing polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP; Kollidon® 25), vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer (PVP-VA; Kollidon® VA64) or polyvinyl alcohol 4–88 (PVA) forming porous lyospheres® (median particle size 250 to 350 µm). Rivaroxaban was amorphous with all three polymers, which in combination with the high porosity resulted in rapid dissolution in vitro within 10 min. Consequently, this translated in lower Tmax (0.5–1.0 h) after oral administration of lyospheres® to rats (compared with Tmax of 4 h with coarse rivaroxaban). Lyosphere formulations achieved a distinct bioavailability increase (AUC(0-inf) = 1487 ± 657 ng*h/ml with PVP; 4426 ± 1553 ng*h/ml with PVP-VA; 9569 ± 3868 ng*h/ml with PVA lyospheres®; whereas 385 ± 145 ng*h/ml with coarse rivaroxaban). These in vitro and in vivo results underlined the benefit of using DMSO in SFD that can broaden the applicability of the SFD process to a much larger repertoire of poorly water-soluble drugs/excipients.
Spray-freeze-drying, Dissolution-enhancement, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Rivaroxaban