Combination of copigmentation and encapsulation strategies for the synergistic stabilization of anthocyanins
Chen Tan, Younas Dadmohammadi, Michelle C. Lee, Alireza Abbaspourrad
Copigmentation and encapsulation are the two most commonly used techniques for anthocyanin stabilization. However, each of these techniques by itself suffers from many challenges associated with the simultaneous achievement of color intensification and high stability of anthocyanins. Integrating copigmentation and encapsulation may overcome the limitation of usage of a single technique. This review summarizes the most recent studies and their challenges aiming at combining copigmentation and encapsulation techniques. The effective approaches for encapsulating copigmented anthocyanins are described, including spray/freeze-drying, emulsification, gelation, polyelectrolyte complexation, and their combinations. Other emerging approaches, such as layer-by-layer deposition and ultrasonication, are also reviewed. The physicochemical principles underlying the combined strategies for the fabrication of various delivery systems are discussed. Particular emphasis is directed toward the synergistic effects of copigmentation and encapsulation, for example, modulating roles of copigments in the processes of gelation and complexation. Finally, some of the major challenges and opportunities for future studies are highlighted. The trend of integrating copigmentation and encapsulation has been just started to develop. The information in this review should facilitate the exploration of the combination of multistrategy and the fabrication of robust delivery systems for copigmented anthocyanins.