Thermolysis and Sensitivities of Nanometer Ammonium Nitrate Prepared by Ultra-low Temperature Spray Freeze Drying Method
Yi Wang, Xiaolan Song, Fengsheng Li
Nanometer (nano) ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) were prepared with 2D network structures by the ultra-low temperature spray method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TG-IR) were employed to probe the micron structure, crystal phase, and thermal decomposition of nano AP and nano AN. SEM images revealed that the sizes of nano AP and AN were in the nanometer scale (<100 nm) in one dimension. XRD patterns showed that the crystal phases of nano AP and AN were in accordance with those of raw AP and raw AN, respectively. DSC traces indicated that the thermal decomposition process of AP depended on its particle size, while the thermolysis of AN was independent of the particle size of AN. TG-IR analyses illustrated that the decomposition products of nano AP were NO2, N2O, HCl and H2O, with a small amount of NOCl, and the main decomposition products of nano AN were N2O and H2O, with a small amount of NH3. The results of mechanical sensitivity tests indicated that nano AP was more sensitive than raw AP and both nano AN and raw AN were very insensitive to impact and friction stimuli.
nano AP; nano AN; liquid nitrogen; freeze drying; thermolysis