Recent progress in structural development and band engineering of perovskites materials for photocatalytic solar hydrogen production: A review
Sehar Tasleem, Muhammad Tahir
Photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen production is a promising technology for the conversion of solar light to clean energy. In this perspective, several semiconductors have been under investigation, but they show less efficiency, selectivity and stability for hydrogen production. Recently, perovskites are most demanding due to their exceptional characteristics such as controlled structure and morphology, adjustable band structure, controlled valence state, adjustable oxidation state and visible light response. This review highlights structural classification of perovskites and band engineering for solar energy assisted photocatalytic hydrogen production. In the main stream, overview and fundamentals of perovskite materials for selective solar to hydrogen conversion are presented. The structural modification and band alteration to stimulate quantum efficiency and stability are specifically demonstrated. Photoactivity enhancement through metals, noble metals, non-metals doping, oxygen vacancies and fermi level adjustments are also deliberated. The role of perovskites with binary semiconductors towards hydrogen production has also been discussed. Up conversion effect of doping luminescent agents (Er, Ho, Eu, Nd) for improved photocatalytic activity by band gap narrowing is also deliberated. Various conventional and non-conventional synthesis methods for perovskites including solid-state, hydrothermal, sol-gel, co-precipitation, spray-freeze drying, microwave assisted, spray pyrolysis, low temperature combustion, pulse laser deposition and wet chemical method for enhanced photocatalytic activity are also demonstrated in this work. Finally, the key challenges and future directions for sustainable energy systems are also included.
Photo-catalysis, Hydrogen production, Perovskites, Structural classification, Synthesis methods, Binary semiconductors