Mai Babenko, Jean-Marie R. Peron, Waseem Kaialy, Gianpiero Calabrese, Raid G. Alany, Amr ElShaer
Quantitative analysis using proton NMR (1H qNMR) has been employed in various areas such as pharmaceutical analysis (e.g., dissolution study), vaccines, natural products analysis, metabolites, and macrolide antibiotics in agriculture industry. However, it is not routinely used in the quantification of saccharides in dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. The aim of this study was to develop a 1H NMR method for the quantification of saccharides employed in DPI formulations. Dry powders as DPI carriers were prepared by spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD) using three saccharides: namely D-mannitol, D-sorbitol and D-(+)-sucrose. The calibration curves constructed for all three saccharides demonstrated linearity with R2 value of 1. The 1H qNMR method produced accurate (relative error %: 0.184–3.697) and precise data with high repeatability (RSD %: 0.517–3.126) within the calibration curve concentration range. The 1H qNMR method also demonstrated significant sensitivity with low values of limit of detection (0.058 mM for D-mannitol, 0.045 mM for D-(+)-sucrose, and 0.056 mM for D-sorbitol) and limit of quantitation (0.175 mM for D-mannitol, 0.135 mM for D-(+)-sucrose, and 0.168 mM for D-sorbitol). Pulmonary deposition via impaction experiments of the three saccharides was quantified using the developed method. It was found that SFD D-mannitol (68.99%) and SFD D-(+)-sucrose (66.62%) exhibited better delivered dose (total saccharide deposition in throat and all impactor stages) than SD D-mannitol (49.03%) and SD D-(+)-sucrose (57.70%) (p < 0.05). The developed 1H qNMR methodology can be routinely used as an analytical method to assess pulmonary deposition in impaction experiments of saccharides employed as carriers in DPI formulations.